Drs. Smith and Schmitz to host workshop
Dr. Smith and Dr. Schmitz invite you to attend the NSF-Sponsored Workshop on Research Needs in Machining and Machine Tools.
Dates: Monday, March 5 to Tuesday, March 6, 2018
Location: National Science Foundation, 2415 Eisenhower Ave. Alexandria, VA 22314
The purpose of this workshop is to identify fundamental research and development objectives for a resurgent US machine tool and machining industry. The workshop will bring together key thought leaders from academia, industry, government agencies, trade organizations, and national labs for an intensive two-day meeting to identify and prioritize research needs in machining and machine tools. Registration is limited to 100 participants.
Dr. Schmitz to present at CCAM
Dr. Schmitz will present “Is all chatter bad?” at the Commonwealth Center for Advanced Manufacturing (CCAM) Machining Research Day. The event will be held at their facility in Prince George County, VA on Wednesday, February 28th.
New book chapters released
Dr. Schmitz and his collaborators had two new book chapters released in early 2018. They are:
- Bayesian Inference: Observations and Applications, R.O. Cardenas, Ed., ISBN 978-1-53613-212-0, Ch. 2 “A Decision Analytic Framework for Optimal Milling Parameter Selection”, J. Karandikar, C. Tyler, A. Abbas, and T. Schmitz, Nova Science Publishers, Inc., Hauppauge, NY, 2018.
- ASM Handbook, Volume 18: Friction, Lubrication, and Wear Technology, G. Totten, Ed., ISBN 978-1-62708-141-2, “Fundamentals of Tribology in Machining”, T. Schmitz, ASM International, Materials Park, OH, 2018.
SME highlights UNC Charlotte
Patrick Waurzyniak, Senior Editor for Advanced Manufacturing, started a new series of articles that spotlight manufacturing research programs at key universities. The first in this series described manufacturing and metrology efforts at UNC Charlotte. http:/
Schmitz elected ASPE vice-president
Dr. Schmitz was elected to serve as the 2018 Vice-President of the American Society for Precision Engineering (ASPE). ASPE focuses on areas that are important in the research, design, development, manufacture, and measurement of high accuracy components and systems. ASPE members represent a variety of technical areas – from engineering (mechanical, electrical, optical, and industrial) to materials science, physics, chemistry, mathematics, and computer science – and are employed in industry, academia and national labs. ASPE holds its Annual Meeting in the fall of each year.
UNC Charlotte to host 2018 NSF CMMI CAREER Proposal Writing Workshop
An NSF CMMI CAREER Proposal Writing Workshop will be held on March 25-27, 2018, in Charlotte, NC. The workshop aims to provide future CAREER proposal submitters with proposal review experience and interactions with NSF program directors and recent NSF CAREER awardees. The workshop organizers are Dr. Schmitz, Dr. Bradley Kramer, KSU, and Dr. ZJ Pei, TAMU.
Schmitz organizes Fall 2017 MEES PhD research symposium
Mechanical Engineering and Engineering Science (MEES) PhD students presented the current status of their research to the undergraduates, graduate students, staff, and faculty. It provided an opportunity to both showcase research results and exercise presentation and writing skills. The allowable time for each presentation was five minutes. An abstract was submitted for each presentation to summarize the research effort and the abstracts were collected into a proceedings. Faculty/staff/students ranked the presentations using an online scoring rubric. Prizes will be awarded to the top three presentations.
Schmitz participates in US-Italy workshop
Dr. Schmitz attended the Workshop on US-Italy Collaborative Research in Advanced Manufacturing held at the Embassy of Italy in Washington, DC on November 29-30, 2017. The objective of the workshop was to encourage collaboration between US and Italy researchers in advanced manufacturing.
ASME Journal of Manufacturing Science and Engineering special issue
Dr. Schmitz served as guest editor for a special issue of the ASME Journal of Manufacturing Science and Engineering entitled “Enhanced Process-Machine Interaction through Design, Tooling, Automation, and Modeling”. His co-editors are: Prof. Burak Sencer, Oregon State University; Dr. Jaydeep Karandikar, GE Global Research Center; and Dr. Chris Tyler, Boeing.
The special issue focus is computer numerically-controlled (CNC) manufacturing equipment and tooling, which has led to the automation of many processes and significant productivity advances. The demand for high quality products and cost effective processes continues to grow and drives the design of new machinery, intelligent tooling, and sophisticated control and automation techniques. However, the efficiency and throughput of modern manufacturing processes still depends on the interaction of the machine with the process. This motivates research in the area of process-machine interaction focusing on design, tooling, automation, and modeling.
Schmitz speaks at south-tec
Dr. Schmitz presented his invited talk “Biomimetic Manufacturing” at the SME/AMT-sponsored south-tec show in Greenville, SC on October 25, 2017. This was an encore presentation of his Blue Sky Competition award-winning talk from NAMRC 45 (June 6, 2017, University of Southern California).
Students awarded NSF grants
Ryan Copenhaver, Michael Gomez, Corbin Grohol, Andrew Honeycutt, Chris Kossack, and Mike Stokes were awarded National Science Foundation (NSF) grants to cover registration fees for the 32nd American Society for Precision Engineering (ASPE) Annual Meeting held in Charlotte, NC. The registration fees covered the technical and poster sessions, the exhibition, the commercial sessions, the social functions, and the attendee’s package, which includes an electronic copy of the conference proceedings.
Schmitz wins inaugural NAMRI/SME David Dornfeld Manufacturing Vision Award
Dr. Schmitz presented his winning talk “Biomimetic Manufacturing” in the Blue Sky Competition sessions held at NAMRC 45 (June 6, 2017, University of Southern California). This event honored the legacy and innovative spirit of the late David Dornfeld, PhD, FSME, UC Berkeley. The presentations were intended to be open-ended, causing the community to consider the “outrageous”, presenting new challenges in new application domains requiring new approaches that are likely to stimulate significant new interest, providing bold visions of the future of manufacturing, and defining the research and education needed to achieve the vision.There were nine finalists from 52 abstract submissions who presented at the conference.
- Tony L. Schmitz, PhD, FSME, University of North Carolina at Charlotte, “Biomimetic Manufacturing”
- Mark P. Mills, Northwestern University, “The Internet of Skills: Online Virtual Simulators for Skilled Trades”
- William C. Harris, Sikorsky Aircraft Corp., “Next Generation Agile Manufacturing to Enable ‘Point of Use’ Customization for Complex Vehicles”
- Thomas R. Kurfess, PhD, FSME, PE, Georgia Tech, “Digital Volumetric Processing Using High Performance Computing”
- Wayne E. King, PhD, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, “Achieving Just Press Print for Metal Additive Manufacturing”
- Jian Cao, PhD, FSME, Northwestern University, “A Manufacturing Process Compiler (MPC) — Vision for a Futuristic Manufacturing Paradigm”
- Joel Neidig, ITAMCO, “The Global Human-Machine Neural Network”
- Martin Jun, PhD, Purdue University, “Interactive Virtual Hands-on Manufacturing”
- Mike Vogler, PhD, Caterpillar Inc., “Sharing for Agility”
Schmitz presents at MForesight-sponsored ASME-MSEC Workshop
Dr. Schmitz presented his invited talk “M-Uber: Uber-type assignment for distributed operator machining operations” at the MForesight-sponsored ASME-MSEC Workshop on Cost-Effective Low-Volume Manufacturing (June 5, 2017, University of Southern California). Co-authors were Drs. Noel Greis, UNC Chapel Hill, John Ziegert, UNC Charlotte, and Jaydeep Karandikar, GE Global Research Center.
Schmitz recognized by ASME Journal of Manufacturing Science and Engineering
Dr. Schmitz was recognized with an ASME Certificate of Appreciation for service as Associate Editor for the ASME Journal of Manufacturing Science and Engineering (2011-2017). The certificate was awarded at the 2017 Manufacturing Science and Engineering Conference awards luncheon (June 5, 2017, University of Southern California).
Honeycutt receives award
The faculty, staff, and students of the Mechanical Engineering and Engineering Science Department at UNC Charlotte recognize Andrew Honeycutt, PhD student for Dr. Schmitz, with the 2016 Outstanding Graduate Student Award. This award recognizes a student of distinction from each department in the College of Engineering.
Schmitz participates in NSF workshop
Dr. Schmitz served as a mock panel facilitator at the National Science Foundation (NSF) CAREER Proposal Writing Workshop held in Portland, OR on April 2-4, 2017. The workshop provided future CAREER proposal submitters with a proposal review experience and interactions with NSF program directors and recent NSF CAREER awardees.
Schmitz and Tarbutton receive NSF grant
Dr. Schmitz and Dr. Tarbutton were awarded a National Science Foundation (NSF) Grant entitled “Collaborative Research: Improved Freeform Measurement through Fiber-based Metrology”. The grant is a collaboration with Dr. ChaBum Lee, Tennessee Technological University.
The editors of the Journal of Manufacturing Processes recognized Dr. Schmitz’s paper, co-authored with Dr. Chris Tyler, with a certificate for “Highly Cited Research” in January 2017. The paper, entitled “Analytical process damping stability prediction“, was commended for its contribution to the journal quality.
Schmitz presents at TRAM
Dr. Schmitz presented his talk “Next-generation machining: Automated parameter selection through dynamics modeling” at the Trends in Advanced Machining, Manufacturing & Materials (TRAM) Aerospace Conference 2016 on September 15. The Boeing-sponsored event was hosted by the International Manufacturing Technology Show (IMTS2016) in Chicago, IL.
Schmitz presents at Texas A&M
Dr. Schmitz visited the Industrial and Systems Engineering Department at Texas A&M University on September 2, 2016. He described his ongoing research on period-n bifurcations in milling. His presentation was entitled “Is all chatter bad?” He was hosted by Dr. Sagapuram.
Schmitz research highlighted in Modern Machine Shop
Dr. Schmitz has studied an approach to predict tool point dynamics, referred to as Receptance Coupling Substructure Analysis, to improve productivity and reduce cost in machining. This effort is now being commercialized by BlueSwarf, LLC. An article at Modern Machine Shop Online details the collaboration.
Schmitz named to SME College of Fellows
SME, which serves the manufacturing industry by promoting advanced manufacturing technology, has elected Tony Schmitz, PhD, FSME, University of North Carolina Charlotte, to its 2016 College of Fellows.
Schmitz serves on CIRP conference committee
Dr. Schmitz served on the organizing committee for the 3rd CIRP Conference on Surface Integrity (CSI). The conference chairs were Dr. Matthew Davies, UNC Charlotte, and Dr. Rachid M’Saoubi, Seko Tools, Ltd. The conference was held at UNC Charlotte on June 8-10, 2016. The goals of the conference were to present trends in studies of surface integrity, understand the formation and consequences of surface integrity obtained after surface preparation techniques have been applied, discuss case studies related to workpiece surface integrity, and identify industrial needs/applications.
Rubeo receives scholarship
Mark Rubeo, PhD student for Dr. Schmitz, was selected to receive a Student Scholarship Award to attend the 31st American Society for Precision Engineering (ASPE) Annual Meeting on October 23-28, 2016 in Portland, OR. At the conference, Mark will present his paper “Experimental Platform for Chip Formation and Cutting Force Measurement in Orthogonal Turning.” The award includes a waiver of the conference registration fee, four free tutorials, and a $1000 honorarium for travel and lodging expenses.
Spring 2016 Junior Design competition
Competition day for MEGR 3156: Junior Design was held at Bass Pro Shops, Concord, NC on 4/28/16. The project defined by Dr. Schmitz was an automated fishing pole casting robot; 14 teams with 98 total team members competed for distance and accuracy. A “Shark Tank” presentation was also completed by each team to a panel of Charlotte-area business leaders to teach entrepreneurial skills.
Rubeo receives award
The faculty, staff, and students of the Mechanical Engineering and Engineering Science Department at UNC Charlotte recognize Mark Rubeo, PhD student for Dr. Schmitz, with the Spring 2016 Outstanding Graduate Research Assistant award.
Lomascolo receives award
The faculty, staff, and students of the Mechanical Engineering and Engineering Science Department at UNC Charlotte recognize Christian Lomascolo, MS student for Dr. Schmitz, with the Spring 2016 Outstanding Graduate Teaching Assistant award.
Schmitz receives NSF GOALI
Dr. Schmitz was awarded a National Science Foundation (NSF) Grant Opportunities for Academic Liaison with Industry (GOALI) project. The GOALI is a collaboration with General Electric (GE) Global Research Center to study machining dynamics in production environments. The project title is “Exploiting Period-n Bifurcations to Reduce Milling Cost”.
Schmitz participates in NSF workshop
Dr. Schmitz served as a mock panel facilitator at the National Science Foundation (NSF) CAREER Proposal Writing Workshop held in St. Louis, MO on March 21-22, 2016. The workshop provided future CAREER proposal submitters with a proposal review experience and interactions with NSF program directors and recent NSF CAREER awardees.
Tyler named Forbes 30 Under 30 member
Dr. Chris Tyler, former PhD student for Dr. Schmitz, was selected as one of Forbes 2016 30 Under 30 honorees. Chris’ profile is available at 30 Under 30.
Karandikar receives SME award
Dr. Jaydeep Karandikar, former PhD student for Dr. Schmitz, was selected to receive the 2016 SME Outstanding Young Manufacturing Engineer Award. Dr. Karandikar is now a process engineer at GE Global Research.
Schmitz to serve NAMRI
Dr. Schmitz will serve as Associate Chair of the NAMRI 2016 Scientific Committee. The 44th SME North American Manufacturing Research Conference (NAMRC) and the ASME Manufacturing Science and Engineering Conference (MSEC 2016) is the premier international forum for applied research and industrial applications in manufacturing and design. It will be held at Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA, from June 27-July 1, 2016.
Tyler named SME 30 Under 30 recipient
Dr. Chris Tyler, former PhD student for Dr. Schmitz, was selected as one of Manufacturing Engineering’s 2015 30 Under 30 honorees. Chris’ profile is available at 30 Under 30.
Schmitz serves as NAMRC/MSEC conference co-chair
Dr. Schmitz is co-chairing the 43rd SME North American Manufacturing Research Conference (NAMRC) and the ASME Manufacturing Science and Engineering Conference (MSEC 2015), the premier international forum for applied research and industrial applications in manufacturing and design. The conference chair is Dr. John Ziegert and the other co-chairs are Dr. Scott Smith and Dr. Brigid Mullany. It will be held at UNC Charlotte on June 8-12, 2015. More details are available at the conference web site.
Schmitz serves on subcommittee
Dr. Schmitz is serving on the UNC Charlotte Sportsmanship and Ethical Conduct Subcommittee of the Chancellor’s Committee on Intercollegiate Athletics. This subcommittee was established to promote “sportsmanship and ethical conduct in all aspects of intercollegiate athletics by developing and implementing strategies that foster greater acceptance of the value of respect, fairness, civility, honesty, and responsibility.”
Schmitz co-chairs NSF COV
Dr. Schmitz is acting as co-chair for the FY 2015 National Science Foundation (NSF) Division of Civil, Mechanical, and Manufacturing Innovation Committee of Visitors (COV). The COV is charged to review the division’s portfolio, the proposal and award process, and program operations and management for FY 2012-2014. The COV chair is Dr. Louis Martin-Vega, dean of the College of Engineering at NCSU, Raleigh, NC.
Schmitz participates in NSF workshop
Dr. Schmitz served as a mock panel facilitator at the National Science Foundation (NSF) CAREER Proposal Writing Workshop held at Northeastern University, Boston, MA on April 27-28, 2015. The workshop provided future CAREER proposal submitters with a proposal review experience and interactions with NSF program directors and recent NSF CAREER awardees.
Tyler named top graduate student
The faculty, staff, and students of The Mechanical Engineering and Engineering Science Department have recognized Christopher Tyler with the 2015 Outstanding Graduate Student Award. This award recognizes a student of distinction from each department in the College of Engineering.
Schmitz visits India
Dr. Schmitz presented a keynote paper at the International Conference on Advances in Production and Industrial Engineering 2015 (INCAPIE 2015). The conference was hosted by the Department of Production Engineering at the National Institute of Technology Tiruchirappalli from February 20-21, 2015. NIT Trichy is located in Tamil Nadu, India. Dr. Schmitz was hosted by Dr. Kumanan Somasundaram, Professor and Head, Department of Production Engineering.
Schmitz analyzes Beckham catch
Dr. Schmitz was quoted in a NY Times article authored by Bill Pennington that discussed the one-handed catch by NY Giants wide receiver Odell Beckham on Sunday, November 23, 2014. The article link is: http://www.nytimes.com/2014/11/25/sports/football/a-lab-perfect-reception-by-the-giants-odell-beckham-jr.html.
Schmitz co-authors new text book
Dr. Schmitz and Dr. Matthew Davies co-authored a text book entitled: “System Dynamics for Mechanical Engineers“. The text explains system dynamics using analogies familiar to the mechanical engineer while introducing new content in an intuitive fashion. The fundamentals provided in this book prepare the mechanical engineer to adapt to continuous technological advances with topics outside traditional mechanical engineering curricula by preparing them to apply basic principles and established approaches to new problems.
Honeycutt awarded graduate fellowship
Andrew Honeycutt was awarded the Herschel and Cornelia Everett Foundation First-Year Graduate Fellowship. Andrew is a PhD student studying machining dynamics.
Schmitz receives new appointment
Dr. Schmitz was named the Mechanical Engineering and Engineering Science Department Associate Chair for Graduate Programs. The position oversees the MS and PhD programs, including student recruiting and distance education efforts.
Mark Rubeo named Siemens Energy scholarship winner
Mark Rubeo was awarded the 2014-2015 Siemens Energy Masters Scholars program scholarship. The program was established with funds provided by Siemens Energy in an effort to assist the Lee College of Engineering in attracting and retaining top graduate students to energy engineering research topics. The program, which is managed by the Energy Production Infrastructure Center (EPIC) at UNC Charlotte, selects one graduate student per academic year to receive the $30,000 scholarship.
Schmitz promoted to Professor
The UNC Charlotte Board of Trustees approved Dr. Schmitz’ promotion with permanent tenure to the rank of Professor in the Department of Mechanical Engineering and Engineering Science effective July 1, 2014.
Schmitz serves as baseball faculty advisor
Dr. Schmitz was the 2014-15 faculty advisor for the UNC Charlotte University Club Baseball Team. It competes in the National Club Baseball Association Division I league. Schmitz will continue in this role for the 2015-16 season.
Tyler awarded NSF conference support
Chris Tyler was selected to receive an NSF Student Registration Support award for the 6th CIRP High Performance Cutting Conference (HPC2014) held in Berkeley, CA from June 23 to June 25.
Chris Tyler named Siemens Energy scholarship winner
Chris Tyler was awarded the 2013-2014 Siemens Energy Masters Scholars program scholarship. The program was established with funds provided by Siemens Energy in an effort to assist the Lee College of Engineering in attracting and retaining top graduate students to energy engineering research topics. The program, which is managed by the Energy Production Infrastructure Center (EPIC) at UNC Charlotte, selects one graduate student per academic year to receive the $30,000 scholarship.
Ganguly receives recognition at NAMRC
Vasishta Ganguly received two honors at the 2013 North American Manufacturing Research Conference (NAMRC) in Madison, WI (June 10-14). His paper “Spindle Dynamics Identification using Particle Swarm Optimization”, co-authored with Dr. Schmitz, was named Second Runner-up in the Outstanding Paper competition. He also received Honorable Mention in the Student Research Presentation contest.
UNCC 3-D printing in the news
Dr. Schmitz was recently quoted in a Charlotte Business Journal article by Julie Bird that features rapid prototyping. Dr. Schmitz uses rapid prototyping in his MEGR 3156 Design Projects Lab II: Junior Design course.
Dr. Schmitz receives teaching award
Dr. Schmitz was awarded the UNC Charlotte Lee College of Engineering 2013 Undergraduate Award in Teaching Excellence. The award recognizes Dr. Schmitz’ efforts in undergraduate education and student mentoring.
Dr. Schmitz presents at TWS conference
Dr. Schmitz described “Leveraging Process Damping to Improve Material Removal Rates in Hard-to-machine Materials” at the Third Wave Systems 2013 Users Conference in Pittsburgh, PA, on Wednesday, May 15, 2013.
Dr. Schmitz hosts Junior Design Competition Night at UNC Charlotte
The students in MEGR-3156 “Junior Design” presented their semester-long design and build X-Y plotter projects to students from ENGL-2116 “Technical Communications” and visiting students from Weddington High School, Weddington, NC on Thursday, April 25, 2013. The project description, pictures of the event, and videos of the plotters in action are available at the following web site.
Vasishta Ganguly garners recognition and awards
Vasishta Ganguly received a Student Scholarship Award for the 28th annual meeting of the American Society for Precision Engineering to be held in St. Paul, MN from October 20-25, 2013. He presented his paper entitled “Correction for Amplifier-Induced Phase Lag in Capacitance Gage Measurements”, co-authored by Dr. Schmitz, on October 23. He was also presented with the American Society for Precision Engineering UNC Charlotte student chapter Ted and Harold Arneson Award for his spindle dynamics research on April 5, 2013. Finally, Vasishta received a Student Registration Support Grant for the 2013 ASME International Manufacturing Science and Engineering Conference (MSEC 2013/NAMRC 41) held in Madison, WI from June 10-14.
Jaydeep Karandikar receives graduate research award and student support grant
Jaydeep Karandikar was recognized with the 2013 Outstanding Graduate Research Assistant Award for the Mechanical Engineering and Engineering Science Department. The award was announced at the 12th Annual College of Engineering Celebration of Student Achievement Event on April 22, 2013. Jaydeep also received a Student Registration Support Grant for the 2013 ASME International Manufacturing Science and Engineering Conference (MSEC 2013/NAMRC 41) held in Madison, WI from June 10-14.
Vasishta Ganguly receives NCSLI award
Vasishta Ganguly was awarded a cash prize and scholarship to attend the NCSLI Technical Exchange in Charlotte, NC, February 6-7, 2013. The award was based on his abstract submission, which described his research on rotating dynamics and metrology of milling spindles.
Chris Tyler receives two awards
Chris Tyler received a Student Support Award for the MSEC 2012/NAMRC 40 conference. Chris presented his paper, co-authored by Dr. Schmitz, entitled “Process Damping Analytical Stability Analysis and Validation”. Chris was also awarded an American Society for Precision Engineering (ASPE) Student Scholarship for the 2012 ASPE Annual Meeting in San Diego from October 21 to 26. Chris is a PhD student under the direction of Dr. Schmitz.
Dr. Schmitz hosts Statics Night at UNC Charlotte
The students in MEGR-2141 “Statics” presented their semester projects to students from ENGL-2116 “Technical Communications” (for peer evaluation) and visiting students from Weddington High School, Weddington, NC on Monday, April 30, 2012.
Dr. Schmitz speaks at NCDMM Summit
Dr. Schmitz presented at the National Center for Defense Manufacturing and Machining (NCDMM) annual Summit on May 2-3, 2012, at Chestnut Ridge Golf Resort & Conference Center in Blairsville, PA. The title of his talk was “The Machine Tool Genome Project.”
Dr. Schmitz presents at NSF CAREER workshop
Dr. Schmitz presented the impact the NSF CAREER award has had on his career on March 26 in Reno, NV at the 2012 NSF CAREER proposal writing workshop. The title of his talk was “Broad(er) impacts of the NSF CAREER proposal”.
Dr. Schmitz named Temple University Alumni Fellow
Dr. Schmitz traveled to Philadelphia on February 23 to present a talk entitled “What the T did for me” in honor of Engineer’s Week at Temple University. During this event, Dr. Schmitz was named a Temple University Alumni Fellow “in recognition of distinguised professional contributions”. Dr. Schmitz graduated with his BS in Mechanical Engineering from Temple in 1993.
New Mechanical Vibrations book available
Dr. Schmitz and Dr. Scott Smith, Chair of the Mechanical Engineering and Engineering Science department at UNC Charlotte, co-authored a text book entitled: “Mechanical Vibrations: Modeling and Measurement“. This book describes essential concepts in vibration analysis of mechanical systems. It incorporates the required mathematics, experimental techniques, fundamentals of modal analysis, and beam theory into a unified framework that is written to be accessible to undergraduate students, researchers, and practicing engineers alike. To demonstrate and unify the various concepts, the Beam Experimental Platform (BEP) is used throughout the text. Engineering drawings for the BEP are included in an appendix so that instructors can provide their own demonstrations in the classroom. Additionally, Matlab programming solutions are integrated into the text through many numerical examples.
Special features of “Mechanical Vibrations: Modeling and Measurement” include: 1) Matlab Mojo code examples; 2) By the Numbers numerical solutions; 3) a PowerPoint presentation that provides an introduction to Matlab programming; 4) chapter problems and solutions, including Matlab code; 5) non-mathematical In a Nutshell explanations that summarize selected concepts in layman’s terms; and 7) discussions and numerical examples of model uncertainty.